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  Kata Biblon
Wiki Lexicon of the Greek New Testament

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

Lemma:‎ πορνεία

Interlinear

 Robinson-Pierpont 2005 World English Bible‎ / Wiki English Translation
Acts 15:20ἀλλὰ [lexicon][inflect][close]
Particle

ἀλλά
αλλα
indecl
but-rather emphatic/hard-adversative, "but-rather/instead", as distinct from the softer, more common, "δέ"
ἐπιστεῖλαι [lexicon][inflect][close]
Verb

ἐπι·στέλλω (-, -, επι+στειλ·[σ]-, -, -, -)
επι·στειλ·[σ]αι
1aor act inf or 1aor mp imp 2nd sg or 1aor act opt 3rd sg
to write to to write to, send a letter to
αὐτοῖς [lexicon][inflect][close]
Pronoun (3rd Person)

αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό
αυτ·οις
mas dat pl or neu dat pl
he/she/it/same
τοῦ [lexicon][inflect][close]
Article (Definite)

ὁ ἡ τό
τ·ου
neu gen sg or mas gen sg
the
ἀπέχεσθαι [lexicon][inflect][close]
Verb

ἀπ·έχω (απ+εχ-, αφ+εξ-, 2nd απο+σχ-, απ+εσχη·κ-, απ+εσχη-, -)
απ·εχ·εσθαι
pres mp inf
to hold back [Lit:"from-have/from-hold"; c. acc., receive something from someone; c. gen. or c. ἀπό, hold a distance away, or abstain from] have or receive in full
{ ἀπὸ [lexicon][inflect][close]
Preposition

ἀπό
απο
indecl
from (G575) – starting from (coming from, since [the start of], in order from), away/out from (from among), sent by, removingly from, receptively from, resulting/produced from, or because of (due to). ἀπ’ before smooth breathing, ἀφ’ before rough breathing
♦ - } τῶν [lexicon][inflect][close]
Article (Definite)

ὁ ἡ τό
τ·ων
neu gen pl or mas gen pl or fem gen pl
the
ἀλισγημάτων [lexicon][inflect][close]
Noun (Neu. 3rd Decl.)

ἀλίσγημα[τ], -ατος, τό
αλισγηματ·ων
(neu) gen pl
pollution
τῶν [lexicon][inflect][close]
Article (Definite)

ὁ ἡ τό
τ·ων
neu gen pl or mas gen pl or fem gen pl
the
εἰδώλων [lexicon][inflect][close]
Noun (Neu. 2nd Decl.)

εἴδωλον, -ου, τό
ειδωλ·ων
(neu) gen pl
idol
καὶ [lexicon][inflect][close]
Conjunction

καί
και
indecl
and also, even, namely
τῆς [lexicon][inflect][close]
Article (Definite)

ὁ ἡ τό
τ·ης
fem gen sg
the
πορνείας [lexicon][inflect][close]
Noun (Fem. 1st Decl.)

πορνεία, -ας, ἡ
πορνει·ας
(fem) gen sg or (fem) acc pl
promiscuity fornication, idolatry
καὶ [lexicon][inflect][close]
Conjunction

καί
και
indecl
and also, even, namely
τοῦ [lexicon][inflect][close]
Article (Definite)

ὁ ἡ τό
τ·ου
neu gen sg or mas gen sg
the
πνικτοῦ [lexicon][inflect][close]
Adjective (2-1-2)

πνικτός -ή -όν
πνικτ·ου
neu gen sg or mas gen sg
smothered/suffocated
καὶ [lexicon][inflect][close]
Conjunction

καί
και
indecl
and also, even, namely
τοῦ [lexicon][inflect][close]
Article (Definite)

ὁ ἡ τό
τ·ου
neu gen sg or mas gen sg
the
αἵματος [lexicon][inflect][close]
Noun (Neu. 3rd Decl.)

αἷμα[τ], -ατος, τό
αιματ·ος
(neu) gen sg
blood σημερον
.
Acts 15:20
but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollutions[a] of idols,[b] from sexual immorality, from what is strangled infanticide,[c] and from blood.[d]
———
a Gk. ἀλίσγημα. Cf. Dn. 1:8 LXX: And Daniel purposed in his heart, that he would not defile [ἀλισγέω] himself with the king's table, nor with the wine of his drink... [Brenton].
b Note Gk. εἴδωλον here, and εἰδωλόθυτος in Acts 15:29 and 21:25. Syntactically, this verse is ambiguous as to whether idols are one of four pollutions (i.e., τῶν εἰδώλων, τῆς πορνείας, τοῦ πνικτοῦ, and τοῦ αἵματος all being dependent on τῶν ἀλισγημάτων), or the pollutions of idols is its own thing (i.e., τῶν εἰδώλων alone being dependent on τῶν ἀλισγημάτων). (See B-Greek: Acts 15:20 The extent of ἀπὸ / ἀλισγημάτων.) If the former, then idolatry itself is a pollution. But Acts 15:29 and 21:25 say εἰδωλόθυτος, which specifically means something sacrificed or offered (-θυτος) to idols (εἰδωλο-) and is always used in the context of something that is eaten. Therefore, the phrase τῶν ἀλισγημάτων τῶν εἰδώλων [the pollutions of idols] should be understood as being directly equivalent to εἰδωλοθύτων and therefore the prohibition specifically about food sacrificed or offered to idols.
c Gk. πνικτός, smothered, choked, drowned, or suffocated (thing). On smothering possibly being a direct reference to infanticide, see David Instone-Brewer, Infanticide and the Apostolic Decree of Acts 15. Infanticide was abhored by the Jews [Tacitus, The Histories: (5.5) ... It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant], but prevalent in Greek and Roman culture up until the fourth century, when Christian opposition prevailed. The accepted method was exposure [ἔκθεσις or ἀπόθεσις] to the elements, but in actual practice included smothering and drowning as described by Philo of Alexandria (c. 20 BCE-c. 50 CE) in his Special Laws III: (114) And as for their murders and infanticides they are established by the most undeniable proofs, since some of them slay them with their own hands, and stifle the first breath of their children, and smother it altogether, out of a terribly cruel and unfeeling disposition; others throw them into the depths of a river, or of a sea, after they have attached a weight to them, in order that they may sink to the bottom more speedily because of it. (115) Others, again, carry them out into a desert place to expose them there... [Yonge]. The Didache [Teaching of the Twelve Apostles] also saw fit to include an express prohibition against it: (2.2) ... οὐ φονεύσεις τέκνον ἐν φθορᾷ οὐδὲ γεννηθὲν ἀποκτενεῖς [you shall not abort a child or commit infanticide (Holmes)]. Note: πνικτός, smothered [adjective], vs. πνίγω, to smother [verb], indicates a specific application rather than the general action.
d Encyclopedia Judaica: In the Bible there is an absolute prohibition on the consumption of blood.... It is the only prohibition (coupled with murder) enjoined not on Israel alone but on all men (Gen. 9:4). Gen. 9:1-6: And God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth. (2) The fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth and upon every bird of the heavens, upon everything that creeps on the ground and all the fish of the sea. Into your hand they are delivered. (3) Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you. And as I gave you the green plants, I give you everything. (4) But you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is its blood. (5) And for your lifeblood I will require a reckoning: from every beast I will require it and from man. From his fellow man I will require a reckoning for the life of man. (6) Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed, for God made man in his own image (ESV).
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